The connector and the communication are regulated in the ICE 62196 standard.
The 3-phases (L1; L2; L3) as well as the neutral conductor (N) and the grounding (PE) are of course already known. In addition, there is the signal line for communication between the vehicle and the charging station (CP) and the encoding of the connector (PP).
CP -> Control Pilot (red)
PP -> Proximity Pilot (white)
L1 -> phase (brown)
L2 -> phase (black)
L3 -> phase (gray)
N -> neutral conductor (blue)
PE -> grounding (green / yellow)
Type 1 and SAE-J1772 aren't technically the same. But Type 1 is based on the SAE-J1772 standard from 2001, which is why people still refer to it as J1772. While type 2 can be locked to the car, so only you can unplug the cable, type 1 can be unplugged by everybody. That's why you see sometimes modified type 1 plugs with padlocks.
Usually, EU imports can be converted to type 1 without any problems, sometimes even directly with parts from the manufacturer. Of course, it should be noted that 50Hz power grids are common in the EU. Normally, the chargers of electric cars can do both, but it is certainly not a mistake to check in advance.